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Big Bang
took place in an existing Universe!

Deduction of the Theory 
Mass and Energy  Evaluation of the Theory 
Test of the
Theory 
 Proof: Special Relativity
is Wrong 
The
Structure and Composition of the
Cosmos
The thesis: "The Structure and Composition
of the Cosmos" consists of two theories: The Quantum Ether
Theory and The Euclidean Cosmos
Theory.
The Quantum Ether
Theory, which is based on the quantum field theory, states
that the zeropoint field is the background for all quantum phenomena
including the propagation of photons and virtual photons, where photons
are the basic units of light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation,
while the virtual photons are forming the electromagnetic force
fields.
The zeropoint
field (also called the vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest
possible energy. The zeropoint field normally contains no physical
particles, but consists of transient electromagnetic radiation and
particles that pop up and disappear.
According to the
Quantum Ether Theory, the relativistic physical phenomena such as the
length contraction and time dilation occur when solid bodies have a
velocity relative to the zero point field, and thereby a velocity relative
to the propagation speed of the virtual particles that hold the
bodies together.
Furthermore, since the traveled length is a
function of time, a material length contraction will seemingly give
rise to a "time dilation", but the speed of
the passing of time has not changed. This means that the time axis is
just as linear as the three space coordinates. The clocks may however be
wrong because of a length contraction.
The
experimental basis for such a theory already exists. The existence of the
zeropoint field has been experimentally verified by the Casimir effect,
and according to Maxwell's equations the electromagnetic fields propagate
with the constant velocity c = (ε_{0}μ_{0})^{−½},
which is defined by the electric (ε_{0})
and magnetic (μ_{0})
properties of the zeropoint field.
This is no
coincidence. Already around the year 1862, Maxwell calculated the
propagation velocity of electromagnetic waves. This speed proved to be
very close to the speed of light, why Maxwell wrote: "We can scarcely
avoid the conclusion that light consists in the transverse undulations of
the same medium which is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena." (J
J O'Connor and E F Robertson, James Clerk Maxwell, School of Mathematics
and Statistics.)
In addition, the length contraction can be
derived by means of Coulomb's law, and the Michelson and Morley experiment
can be explained by a physical length contraction (see below for an
explanation).
The Euclidean Cosmos
Theory, which explains all the fundamental questions
concerning our Universe, looks at the distribution of mass and
energy in the Euclidean space and is founded on classical physics and the
following assumptions:
 The space is
Euclidean.  The law
of conservation of energy holds good.
 No interactions travel faster than
the velocity of light in vacuum.
 Mass and energy are deflected in a
gravitational field.
 The
Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time. (Stems from the
conservation law and the Euclidean geometry of
space.)
 We exist.
 Quantum theory does not allow
singularities.
If we compare the
theory with the observations of our own Universe, the theory provides an
explanation of all the outstanding issues  as for instance dark matter
and dark energy. 
Documents
The
thesis can be seen here. Preevaluation
2015. Response
to the preevaluation 2015.
The Quantum
Ether Theory
The existence of the zeropoint field creates
the basis for the theory of the Structure and Composition of the
Cosmos.
The
Euclidean Cosmos Theory
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The Euclidean Cosmos
Theory
According to this theory, the Cosmos consists
of an infinite space where all the matter and energy are collected. When
we look at the distribution of the matter and energy, we assume that the
Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time, that the mass and energy
is constant, that the space is Euclidean, and that the mass and energy are
quantized  and therefore cannot end up as a singularity. The
gravitational forces will then produce a mass distribution in the infinite
flat space, where the mass and energy assembles into larger
and denser structures, until a state of equilibrium arises in the
Euclidean space.
As time passes by, the larger
and denser units will accumulate into black holes and closed
universes. Since the quantum theory does not permit singularities, even
the closed universes will, as the energy is depleted, end up as giant
black holes. However, since we exist there must be a way out. There must
be a way in which a black hole can be converted into pure energy. That is
to say, a black hole must be able to explode in a Big Bang.
A
big bang is in this context, not an expansion of the universe, but an
explosion (expansion of matter and energy) in an existing Euclidean
closed universe. A Euclidean closed universe, is a universe, where the
space is Euclidean while the universe is closed, such that the total mass
of the universe is so big, that the photons cannot escape the
gravitational field because of their mass, m =
E/c^{2} = hν/c^{2}.
In
a Euclidean universe, the matter and energy will not be able to leave the
universe. Therefore, the material falling into a black hole doesn't end up
as a singularity, but remains in the black hole, so the black hole becomes
bigger, denser, and hotter. The larger the black hole becomes the more of
the surrounding matter it will be able to attract.
As a black hole from the outset has a mass,
that is so big, that not even light can escape, all the energy that is fed
into the black hole, in terms of potential and kinetic energy of the
absorbed material, will stay there. At some point, the temperature will
become so high, that quarkgluon plasma is formed. Finally, when the
temperature reaches several trillion degrees, there will occur a phase
shift, which results in the explosion we call a Big
Bang.
The
result is that matter accumulates into closed universes, where a Big Bang
occurs now and then or rather whenever a black hole gets to the right
size. Since a black hole explodes in a Big Bang in an existing
universe, it provides an explanation of what started a Big Bang and where
the energy came from. In addition, it explains the rapid star formation,
since the "old" mass acts as seeds for the formation of new celestial
bodies. The Dark Matter is simply the "old" matter that is within the
radius of a Big Bang, while the Dark Energy is the "old" matter
outside the radius of a Big Bang.
The theory also solves the
flatness problem, the horizon problem, and the smoothness problem, and
explains the mass distribution in galaxies, and the network structure of
the Universe. Finally, the theory fits with the latest data from
WMAP. 
The
Euclidean Cosmos Theory
The
theory is founded on classical physics and the following assumptions:
 The space is
Euclidean.  The law of
conservation of energy holds good.  No interactions
travel faster than the velocity of light in vacuum. 
Mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational
field.  The Cosmos has
existed for an infinitely long time.  We
exist.  Quantum theory
does not allow
singularities.

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The Quantum Ether
Theory
The Quantum Ether
Theory, as described in "The Structure and
Composition of the Cosmos”, explains all the physical phenomena that
normally are connected with the theory of relativity. Let's look at
some of the results.
According to the theory the length contractions
do not arise because of a velocity relative to another coordinate system,
but because of a motion relative to the zeropoint field.
Consider a solid body. The virtual photons
that constitute the electromagnetic forces that hold the atoms
together in the body are moving with the constant velocity of light (ε_{0}μ_{0})^{−½}.
This velocity is defined by the vacuum permittivity (ε_{0})
and the vacuum permeability (μ_{0}) of
the zeropoint field. When the body moves relative to the zeropoint
field, the speed of the virtual photons will change in relation to the
body. This changes the electromagnetic fields surrounding the atoms. In
order to maintain an equilibrium state, the atoms will then have to move
relative to each other. This means, that there is a physical explanation
of length contractions.
Even the relation E = mc^{2},
and the gravitational induced time dilation, can be deduced from the
classical laws. The relation implies that the mass is of electromagnetic
nature, as m = ε_{0}μ_{0}E
~
ε_{0}μ_{0}eV, whereby it
will be possible to submit a TOE (theory of everything), as the primary
problem here is, that general relativity and quantum mechanics are
impossible to unify. Therefore, the theory provides a platform for
answering many of the questions that for the moment seem almost
insurmountable.
However, Einstein's theory of
relativity does not give a physical explanation for the existence of
length contractions. In short, a theory, that explains how an observer in
one inertial system A perceives the lengths and times in another inertial
system B, cannot produce a physical length contraction or time dilation.
Such material alterations can only arise because of a physical change of
the electromagnetic forces that keep the atoms and molecules together.
Therefore, when a news media pronounces that a
measurement or experiment confirms special relativity, the result of the
measurement is not a consequence of Einstein's relativity, but a
result of the physical laws that appear when objects move in relation to
the electromagnetic or the gravitational field.

The Quantum Ether Theory
Between
the closed universes rests the quantum field with the lowest possible
energy, called the zeropoint field. If there occasionally in the
zeropoint field arise a real particle, it will gravitate against one of
the closed universes or barren objects. In this way, the zeropoint
field remains at the lowest possible energy
level.

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The
Length Contraction and Time Dilation are the result of the
Velocity relative to the ZeroPoint
Field
We assume that we have two charged elementary
particles q_{1}
and q_{2},
which are held together by electromagnetic forces, and which are at rest
in the zeropoint field. According to Coulomb's law the force between the
two charges is equal to,
F
= C
q_{1}q_{2}/r^{2},
where F is the force, r is the
distance between q_{1} and q_{2}
 and C = 1/(4πε_{0}) is a
constant.
We assume that the
electromagnetic forces propagate in the zeropoint field with the speed of
light, c. This means
that the distance r can be
written as ct, where
t is the time
it takes the forces to move the distance r, i.e. r =
ct.
The two particles
is then set in motion in the direction from q_{1}
to q_{2},
with the velocity v relative to
the zeropoint field. Since both the forces and the distance between the
charges may have changed as a result of the movement relative to the
field, we write
F' = C
q_{1}q_{2}/r'^{2}.
As the forces
propagate with the speed of light, c, the
distance the force must travel from q_{1} to q_{2} becomes
to the first order r_{1} = ct
+ vt (since the charge q_{2}
moves away from q_{1}).
The distance the force must travel from q_{2}
to q_{1}
becomes to the first order r_{2} = ct 
vt (since the charge q_{1}
approaches q_{2}).
We thus
find
F' = C
q_{1}q_{2}/r'^{2} =
Cq_{1}q_{2}/[r_{1}r_{2}]
= C q_{1}q_{2}/[(ct +
vt)(ct  vt)] = C
q_{1}q_{2}/[ct(1 +
v/c)ct(1 
v/c)]
F' =
C q_{1}q_{2}/r'^{2} =
C q_{1}q_{2}/[r^{2}(1 
v^{2}/c^{2})] and
thus r' = r
(1v^{2}/c^{2})^{½}
This is the
Lorentz contraction, or the relativistic length contraction, which occurs
when a body moves relative to the zeropoint
field.
Time Dilation
The time is a
measure of the rate of change and can thereby be expressed by how long it
takes to move a certain distance, i.e. t = r/v,
where t is the time,
r the
distance, and v the
velocity.
The Euclidean Cosmos consists of a threedimensional
space and one universal time. However, if the
distance becomes shorter because of the speed in relation to the
zeropoint field, it will obviously take less time to travel the shorter
distance.
Let
us consider a system in motion relative to the zeropoint field.
Because of the length contraction, the time t' it takes to
travel the distance r' =
r(1v^{2}/c^{2})^{½
}in the moving system will not be as long as the time t it takes to
travel the distance r in the
stationary system at the same velocity. This corresponds to what
in the theory of relativity is called the time dilation.
At the same velocity in the two systems, we find
that
r/t = r'/t' = r(1v^{2}/c^{2})^{½}/t'
1/t = (1v^{2}/c^{2})^{½}/t'
from which we find the time
dilation
t' = t(1v^{2}/c^{2})^{½}.
Since the distance becomes shorter in the moving
system, the time it takes to travel the distance, at the same speed,
becomes correspondingly shorter. As the time is reduced by exactly the
same factor as the length, the time will pass just as fast in the moving
system as in the stationary system. It means, that the time is the same in
the two systems. However, the clocks may because of the length
contraction, which depends on their design and orientation relative to the
direction of motion, be affected by their velocity relative to the
zeropoint field.
If we choose to look at the space and time as a
combined spacetime, the time axis will be just as linear as the three
coordinate axes. This means that the space is Euclidean, so the
gravitational field cannot be explained by the curvature of spacetime as
in Einstein's general relativity.
(The
calculations continue under the section "Mass
and Energy".) 
The
Length Contraction and Time Dilation are the result of the
Velocity relative to the ZeroPoint
Field 
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The
MichelsonMorley Experiment
The Michelson and Morley
experiment was an interference experiment, which because of the
changing velocities in relation to the luminiferous ether, should have
resulted in changing interference patterns, when the experimental setup
followed the movements of the earth around the sun  but the experiment
showed no changes in the interference patterns.
Fíg. The Michelson and Morley experiment.
There are two solutions
to the MichelsonMorley experiment: 1) The velocity of light must be
constant in relation to any experimental setup, and thereby to any object,
if it is to explain MichelsonMorley’s experiment. 2) All bodies,
which are moving with a velocity relative to the zeropoint field, must be
subjected to a length contraction in the direction of motion.
Einstein chose the first option, which is identical to one
of his fundamental postulates: The universality of the speed of light. We
will prove that a length contraction of the experimental setup is a
solution to the MichelsonMorley experiment.
Fig. The MichelsonMorley experiment.
Assume that the apparatus is moving in the xdirection with
the velocity v in the
zeropoint field and that the velocity of light c is constant
in relation to this field. When the apparatus is at rest relative to the
zeropoint field, we have: L_{x }= L_{y} = L.
If
t is the time,
the light needs to hit the mirror in the ydirection,
then:
The time the light needs to
hit the mirror in the ydirection and return, is
thus
.
The light
in the xdirection needs the time t_{1} to
hit the mirror and the time t_{2} to
return:
and .
The time for the total
throughput in the xdirection becomes
then
, from
which
.
According to the
MichelsonMorley experiment, the time it takes the light to pass through
the two routes are identical, so 2t = t_{1} +
t_{2
}:
.
Since the left and right hand
side of the equation are different, and as the velocities v
and c are constant
in relation to the zeropoint field, the difference must be due to a
difference in the length between L_{x }and
L_{y}.
Let us denote this difference by γ (gamma),
so L_{y}
= γ ∙ L_{x}.
By doing so, we find that:
From L_{y}
= γ ∙ L_{x}
we find L' = L_{x}
= L_{y
}/γ = L/γ =L(1 − v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2},
from which we get the Lorentz
contraction:
.
As the experimental
setup is moving relative to the virtual photons (the electromagnetic
field) that hold the equipment together, the experiment supports a
physical explanation of the length contraction.
The apparatus consists of atoms that are held
together by electromagnetic forces. When the apparatus is in motion
relative to the zeropoint field, the light and the virtual photons, that
constitute the electromagnetic forces, have exactly the same velocity
relative to the apparatus. As the apparatus because of its velocity
relative to the electromagnetic field shrinks with the factor
(1v^{2}/c^{2})^{½
}in the direction of motion, there do not arise any changes in the
interference pattern, during the motion of the apparatus around the
sun.
However, if we assume that the velocity of light
(c) is
constant in relation to any object, independent of the velocity of
the object, the length contraction of the object cannot be explained.
Because the velocities of the photons, as well as the virtual photons that
hold the object together, will always be constant in relation to
the object. 
The
MichelsonMorley Experiment
All bodies that are moving with a velocity relative to the
zeropoint field, must be subjected to a length contraction in the
direction of motion, because of their velocity relative to the propagation
speed of the virtual particles that hold the bodies
together.

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Einstein's Theory of Relativity is
Wrong
Einstein's relativity is wrong.
This can be seen from the following separate reasons, where each of
them is enough to overturn the theory.
1st: One cannot at the
same time have a zeropoint field and let all inertial systems be
equal. One cannot have a quantum field like the zeropoint field,
where virtual particles pop up and disappear, and at the same time
postulate that all inertial systems are equal. Because an
inertial system that has a velocity relative to the zeropoint field is
different from a system that is stationary relative to this field. This
is because the zeropoint field is the background in which all
quantum mechanical phenomena take place, including the propagation of the
virtual photons that constitutes the electromagnetic field.
2nd: Even if the length
contractions and time dilations were real according to relativity, it
would not be possible to measure any length contractions or time dilations
according to the theory of relativity.
The theory of relativity is a
theory that explains what the lengths and times looks like in a system S'
seen from a system S, and conversely, what the lengths and times looks
like in a system S seen from a system S'.
We assume that when the two
inertial systems S and S' are at rest relative to each other, the
coordinate values in S and S' have the same physical length, so x_{0}=x_{0}' at a relative velocity equal to
zero.
Fig. Two inertial systems S and S', with the relative numerical velocity
v.
We now consider the case where S and S' has a
relative constant velocity v in the x and x'direction.
According to the principle of relativity the length of the coordinate
x_{0}' seen from S is equal to because of the length contraction, and seen from S' the
length of coordinate x_{0} is, likewise because of the
length contraction, equal to .
Therefore, according to the theory of
relativity, the length contractions "in S' seen from S" and "in S seen
from S' " are identical, regardless of whether one or the other or both
inertial systems have been subjected to an acceleration or
not.
Irrespective of whether the length contractions are
imaginary or real, it will not be possible to measure any length
contractions or time dilations, as the length contractions are identical
in the two systems.
3rd: One cannot create a
physical length contraction in an inertial system S, just by the mere
presence of a moving inertial system S'. As mentioned, the theory
of relativity is a theory that explains what the lengths and times looks
like in a system S' seen from a system S, and conversely, what the lengths
and times looks like in a system S seen from a system S'. If the length
contractions and time dilations are fictitious, they cannot explain the
real length contractions and time dilations that have been observed! One
cannot measure on a fictitious parameter and claim that the result of the
measurement is real.
This can also be illustrated by an optical
phenomenon: If one stands under a lamppost S, and looks at a lamppost
S' at the other end of the road, one finds that lamppost S' is contracted.
Likewise, if one stands under a lamppost S', and looks at a lamppost S at
the other end of the road, one finds that lamppost S is contracted.
The length contractions "in S' seen from S", and "in S seen from S' ",
are identical and fictitious, but these fictitious length contractions
cannot explain the existence of real length contractions.
To
explain the physical observations it is necessary to assume that the
length contractions and time dilations are real. However, if the length
contractions are real, it must be possible to create a length contraction
in an inertial system S, just by letting another inertial system S' pass
by. As this cannot be true, relativity cannot produce any physical length
contractions and time dilations.
4th: What
physical observations justify Einstein to define: "that the "time"
required by light to travel from A to B equals the "time" it requires to
travel from B to A", even when the distance AB is
moving. Einstein deduced special relativity on the postulations of
the constant velocity of light and the principle of relativity. However,
during the deduction of special relativity, he suddenly defines a common
"time" for A and B.
Einstein defines: "that the "time" required by
light to travel from A to B equals the "time" it requires to travel from B
to A ". Einstein uses this definition, even when the fixed distance AB is
moving relative to the constant velocity of light. In the case where the
distance AB is moving, the point B will either approach or distance itself
from the point A, during the time it takes the light to travel the
distance from A to B, and vice versa, when the light travels the distance
from B to A.
Consequently, the two different times cannot become a
common time, unless the velocity of AB is zero in relation to the
zeropoint field. This definition of a common time leads to the time
dilation, and the length contraction. (See page 40 of "Albert Einstein, et
al.: "The Principle of Relativity", Dover Publications, New York." or page
22 of the doctoral thesis “The Structure and Composition of the
Cosmos”.) 
Einstein's Theory of Relativity is
Wrong
Einstein's Relativity says: When I look
at you, you shrink, and when you look at me, I shrink, so we both
shrink. However, an observation of a moving body does not
alter the body; one cannot alter a body just by looking at it.
Therefore, Einstein's theory cannot explain the existence of
length contractions and time dilatations. There must be a physical reason
for a physical change, but Einstein's Relativity does not offer any such
reasons!

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Einstein's Special
Relativity
Special relativity can be
deduced from two fundamental
postulates:*
(1) Principle of
relativity (Galileo): No experiment can measure the absolute velocity of
an observer; the results of any experiment performed by an observer do not
depend on his speed relative to other observers who are not involved in
the experiment.
(2) Universality of the
speed of light (Einstein): The speed of light relative to any
unaccelerated observer is c = 3 × 10^{8} ms^{−1},
regardless of the motion of the light’s source relative to the observer.
Let us be quite clear about this postulate’s meaning: two different
unaccelerated observers measuring the speed of the same photon will each
find it to be moving at 3 × 10^{8} ms^{−1} relative to
themselves, regardless of their state of motion relative to each
other.
* Bernard F.
Schutz: "A First Course in General Relativity", Second Edition, Cambridge
University Press, 2009. (A widely used textbook in General
Relativity.)
The two fundamental postulates are both
false:
Ad. 1. Principle of relativity Stefan
Marinov has disproved the principle of relativity by measuring
the speed of light in different directions. He found in this way the
absolute velocity of the experimental setup relative to the zeropoint
field. The principle behind the test is shown in the figure
below.
Fig. Marinov
measured the velocity of the equipment in relation to the
zeropoint field to 362 ± 40 km/s.
In June 2001, NASA launched a
CMB space mission called WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe). From
the CMB data, it is seen that our local group of galaxies appears to be
moving at 369±0.9 km/s relative to the reference frame of the CMB. This
is in accordance with Stefan Marinov's measurement of the velocity of
the experimental equipment relative to the zeropoint field, which he
measured to 362±40 km/s.
Ad. 2. Universality of the
speed of light The postulate of the universality of the speed
of light was Einstein's attempt to explain the MichelsonMorley
experiment. This means that one and the same photon must have the velocity
c in every inertial system. However, if the virtual photons that
hold the atoms together always have the same velocity c in
relation to a body, they will never be able to generate any length
contractions.
The velocity of light relative to the observer
according to Einstein's Special Relativity:
The same photon, e.g.
Photon 1, cannot, at one and the same time, have exactly the same velocity
c in relation to the zeropoint field and the two inertial
systems, with two different velocities.
The velocity of
light relative to the observer according to the Quantum Ether
Theory:
Since Einstein's Theory of
Relativity is wrong, many of the theories that are based on Einstein's
relativity are also wrong. In connection with space it means especially
that we can ignore the existence of singularities, and the curvature of
space, why space is Euclidean. 
Einstein's Special
Relativity
In order to accept Einstein's relativity, one
have to accept, that a definite photon, with mass m =
f∙h/c^{2}, has the same velocity
c relative to all
moving objects, where c is the velocity
of light, h is
Planck's constant, and f is the frequency of the
photon.
Stefan Marinov has disproved the principle of
relativity by measuring the speed of light in different directions. He
found in this way the absolute velocity of the experimental setup
relative to the zeropoint
field.

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Evaluation
The Faculty of Science at the University of
Copenhagen will not accept the thesis until it has been approval by a
third party. Your institute or publishing house, if any, could be that
third party!
Niels Bohr's Institute has this comment on the
relativistic part of the thesis by theoretical particle physicist Poul
Henrik Damgaard: The paradoxes of special relativity "can be explained by
the necessity of acceleration, to bring two inertial systems into the same
inertial system."
However, according to the present theory, an
inertial system does not care from where it gets its velocity, but it
cares about its velocity relative to the zeropoint field. This is because
the virtual photons that transfer the electromagnetic forces propagate in
the zeropoint field. Consequently, a body that moves relative to this
field will be exposed to a factual length contraction.
On the
cosmological part of the thesis, professor Jens Hjorth from Niels Bohr's
Institute has this comment: "If the work can be published as articles in
international journals (with a referee system) it can eventually be
accepted for public defense at the faculty."
If you agree with the
theory or want to publish it, please let me
know! 
Evaluation 
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© Jørgen Balslev
2010

post@finaltheories.com 